ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities 2023-10-30T07:45:00+03:00 Fatmagül Saklavcı Open Journal Systems <p>ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences &amp; Humanities (E-ISSN: 2717-7262) is an open access, peer-reviewed, international indexed and refereed journal published by IEDSR ASSOCIATION. Its main objective is to provide an intellectual platform for the international scholars. It aims to promote interdisciplinary studies in humanities and social science and become the leading journal in humanities and social science in the world.</p> A Case From a Positive Psychotherapy Perspective: Comorbidity 2023-06-07T10:56:16+03:00 Mustafa Ali KARA Meryem KARAAZİZ <p>It is stated that addiction is a disorder that manifests itself with physical, cognitive and behavioral symptoms, which are characterized by the individual continuing to use the substance despite being harmed, having many unsuccessful attempts to quit, spending excessive time in accessing the substance he/she has used, and using the substance in increasing doses. It is known that alcohol use disorders and other psychiatric disorders are included in treatment programs with comorbidity. Bipolar disorder is one of the mood disorders comorbid with alcohol use disorders. Bipolar disorder, which is one of the mood disorders, is defined as a disorder that recurs with depressive or manic episodes and progresses with euthymic mood between attacks, without being subject to any order. In mania or hypomania attacks of bipolar patients, alcohol/substance abuse may occur as a symptom of their illness. However, some data also support that patients who were included in the treatment program with the diagnosis of alcohol/substance abuse were later diagnosed with Bipolar. It shows that this situation can occur as a symptom of mania / hypomania attacks of individuals, as well as to alleviate other symptoms of the disorder. Therefore, it is evaluated that patients turn to alcohol/substance use as a self-treatment method and develop addiction to the substances they use in the process, and the fact that they prefer sedatives in some cases supports this assessment. In this case study, it is aimed to evaluate the patient who was included in the treatment program with the diagnosis of alcohol dependence and was later diagnosed with Bipolar Type II. It is aimed to treat the patient with medical and Positive Psychotherapy applications during the treatment period.</p> 2023-09-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Hızlandırılmış Kabul ve Kararlılık Terapisi (F-ACT) Üzerine bir Derleme 2023-08-13T16:52:38+03:00 Bilge KARAKUŞ Gamze KESGİN Meryem KARAAZİZ <p>The aim of this research is to see the values ​​of the client in accelerated acceptance and commitment therapy and to live in accordance with these values. It is aimed for the client to face the pain they experience, to make sense of life with them and to accept them as they are. Fact therapy foresees that the person accepts the negative emotional states that he experiences for reasons beyond his control and continues his life with behaviors in accordance with his values. The purpose of this review is to address and clarify Fact in all its aspects. In this study, first of all, three generations of Behavioral Therapies will be examined and the emergence process of Accelerated Acceptance and Commitment Therapy will be evaluated. Then, what is Fact, what are its assumptions, what are the basic concepts of Fact, and finally, the techniques used in the therapy process, the relationship between the client and the therapist, and the effectiveness of Fact will be discussed and the compilation study will be concluded.</p> 2023-09-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Evaluation of Barış Manço's Works in Terms of Communication Sociology 2023-08-24T10:58:17+03:00 Nurgül ERGÜL GÜVENDİ <p>Barış Manço, who includes Turkish culture and basic human values in his works, is one of the powerful and unforgettable artists of Turkish music. For this reason, Barış Manço's works, which created his works in line with Turkish Folk Culture, beliefs and values, constituted the research subject. The aim of this article is to examine the basic values in Barış Manço's works in terms of communication sociology. Document analysis method was used in data collection, and thematic content analysis method was used in data analysis. The results show that the values in Barış Manço's works are functional in terms of creating social identity, group belonging, transferring social norms and values, cultural globalization, gender and inequality. The results obtained show the functionality of musical works in terms of interpersonal and intercultural communication, and draw attention to the sociological importance of these works. It is thought that the research will contribute to the literature as it draws attention to the relations in the fields of music culture, folklore, communication and sociology.</p> 2023-09-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Case Report On Dreams According to Jungyan Analytical Psychology Theory; Message Of Dreams 2023-06-08T11:54:54+03:00 Nihal Aydın Meryem KARAAZİZ <p>Carl Gustav Jung is a significant figure in the field of psychology, and dream studies are one of his areas of focus. According to Jung, dreams provide a window into the individual's unconscious world and hold great potential for inner exploration and interpretation. Jung argues that dreams use a symbolic language, expressing the depths of the individual's inner world. Jung utilizes several techniques in his dream work, including keeping a dream journal. Details, symbols, emotions, and events in dreams are recorded and later analyzed. Dream analysis is an approach that aims to decipher the meaning of symbols and themes in dreams. Another technique called amplification involves exploring the broader meanings of dream symbols by referring to mythology, legends, art, and literary works. Jung also believes that dreams can be explored through an active imagination process. Engaging with dream symbols and attempting to interpret them can deepen the individual's dream experience and support personal growth. Jung's dream work aims to understand the unconscious, establish inner balance, and facilitate self-realization. Exploring and interpreting the symbolic nature of dreams can help individuals delve into the depths of their inner worlds and achieve greater wholeness and awareness.</p> 2023-09-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia): A Case Report 2023-06-16T15:46:21+03:00 Burcu ÖĞÜTLÜ Meryem KARAAZİZ <p>In this case report, a 26-year-old female client with symptoms of social phobia (social anxiety disorder) was treated with cognitive behavioral therapy based on DSM-V diagnostic criteria. The client has difficulty in establishing communication and human relations, hesitant to meet a new person, talk, ask people something, does not want to enter unfamiliar environments, cannot say no to people. experiencing tremors. He stated that his complaints had clearly emerged in the last 1 year and that this situation had a negative impact on his business life, social life, academic life as he was still continuing his graduate education, and his whole life, and that he felt very uncomfortable and intensely worried about this situation. Considering the DSM-V diagnostic criteria, it is clear that the symptoms meet the diagnostic criteria for social phobia (social anxiety disorder). She stated that she could not overcome this situation she was in and she applied to a professional support to solve the problem. First, the client was given comprehensive information about what the disorder is, its clinical picture, treatment methods and the course of treatment, and psychoeducation about coping skills was given. Afterwards, psychoeducation was given by informing about what cognitive behavioral therapy is, what kind of therapy it is, how it will progress and what its content is. The sessions were held in a collaborative manner with the client. During the sessions, various cognitive and behavioral techniques that are considered appropriate for the client were used. As a result of the interventions, cognitive and behavioral changes and the positive effects of cognitive behavioral therapy on social phobia were observed throughout the therapy process.</p> 2023-09-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Causes of Conflict in Preschool Educational Institutions and Teacher Opinions on Solution Proposals 2023-06-21T13:59:18+03:00 Mehri Aydan KANAT <p>The aim of this research is to examine the causes of conflicts experienced in preschool educational institutions and the solutions offered by teachers to conflicts. Depending on this purpose, it has been determined what are the causes of individual, organizational and managerial conflicts experienced in preschool educational institutions and what are the solution proposals brought to these conflicts. The study group of the study consists of 10 teachers working in preschool educational institutions. The teachers who make up the study group work in Antakya district of Hatay province. In order to avoid data loss in the interviews, audio recordings were made in the interviews in accordance with the permission of the teachers. The names of the teachers participating in the study were kept secret, the teachers participating in the study were coded as Ö1, Ö2, Ö3.... Interview technique, one of the qualitative study methods, was used in the research. In the research, a semi-structured interview form was used to collect the data. The data obtained in the interview were transferred to the article and thematic coding of the data was made. By Deciphering the common aspects between the obtained codes, themes covering the codes were reached.</p> <p>According to the interviewed teachers, personality differences (23.3%) and groupings (23.3%) were shown as the most important reasons for individual conflicts. Other reasons for individual conflicts are listed as teachers talking behind each other's backs, differences of purpose and miscommunication issues. Back-talking (gossip), differences of purpose, miscommunication and power struggles have been mentioned as other reasons. According to teachers, bureaucratic work redundancy (32%) is the most common cause of organizational conflict. Demands and pressures from higher authorities are also an important reason mentioned in organizational studies (16%). Apart from these, ”lack of corporate culture“, lack of a significant subordinate-superior relationship and ”parent pressure" have also been shown to be among the causes of organizational Deciency. It was stated that the biggest reason among the reasons for managerial conflict was “discrimination” (27.3%). Dec. It has been stated by teachers that reasons such as the presence of personal interests in relationships, lack of resources, interference in the teachers' field, differences in management concepts and unfairness in awarding are also effective in the emergence of managerial conflicts.</p> <p>80% of teachers stated that they solve individual conflicts by “communicating, reconciling”. The majority of teachers (46.7%) think that “cooperation and division of labor” are important in solving organizational conflicts. In administrative conflicts, it was concluded that ”finding a common path" is the most preferred path by teachers (36.36%).</p> 2023-09-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Investigation Of The Relationship Between Moral Sensitivity And Attitudes To Critical Thinking Of Nursing Students In Clıiiıcal Practice 2023-07-07T12:37:25+03:00 Güzel Nur YILDIZ Mağfiret KARA KAŞIKÇI <p>This study was conducted to determine whether there is a relationship between nursing students’ moral sensitivity levels and critical thinking attitudes. Data were collected using face-to-face interviews with 40 nursing students who went into clinical practice during the Covid 19 Pandemic period in the spring term of 2020-2021. It took 15-30 minutes ort he students to fill out the forms. “Descriptive Information Form”, “Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire” and “Critical Thinking Attitude Scale” were used to collect data. It can be said that students’ moral sensitivity levels are high and their critical thinking levels are moderate. It was determined that the factors affecting the moral sensitivity levels of the students were gender, income status, and taking courses related to critical thinking outside of school(p&lt;0.05). It was determined that the factors affecting the critical thinking attitude levels of the students were their income status and the status of receiving ethics education out of school(p&lt;0.05). It can be said that the moral sensitivity and critical thinking levels of the students are quite good, and as the level of critical thinking attitude of the students increases, their sensitivity towards protecting the integrity of the patient increases.</p> 2023-09-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Systematic Review on the Use of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in Individuals with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) 2023-07-18T13:27:09+03:00 İlayda YAŞA <p><strong>Abstract</strong><br>A systematic review is a comprehensive examination and analysis conducted around a specific topic or research question. Systematic reviews on the use of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in individuals with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) aim to evaluate the effectiveness and effects of the treatment. This review study, which evaluates the impact of CBT on PTSD, gathers relevant research by scanning the existing literature and analyzes them systematically. By examining the effects, treatment process, and outcomes of CBT on PTSD symptoms, this study provides an evidence-based evaluation.</p> <p>A systematic review may encompass studies employing different research methods, such as randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, or observational studies. The results of the study can clarify the impact of CBT on reducing PTSD symptoms, improving functionality, and enhancing quality of life.</p> <p>This systematic review aims to examine the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The literature review revealed that CBT is frequently used in the treatment of PTSD, and positive results have been obtained. Research shows that CBT reduces PTSD symptoms and improves individuals' functionality. It has been concluded that CBT is an effective treatment method and plays an important role in reducing PTSD symptoms. However, there may be variations and limitations among studies. Differences have been observed, particularly in factors such as sample sizes, follow-up periods, and study methodologies. The findings of this review support CBT as an effective approach in the treatment of PTSD, but further research and comprehensive studies are needed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-09-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Investigation of Classroom Teachers' Views on Inclusion Students' Family Participation 2023-08-04T19:53:40+03:00 Şahin CİNCİOĞLU <p>The aim of the study is to examine the views of classroom teachers about family involvement of inclusive students. This research was designed as a case study, one of the qualitative research methods. The participants of the research consist of 15 primary school teachers who have at least one mainstreaming student in their class, who continue to work in the Ministry of National Education in the 2022-2023 academic year in the Merkez district of Edirne province. In the research, semi-structured interview form was used as a data collection tool. According to the results of the research; It was stated that the teachers found the participation of the families insufficient, the families were unconscious about the family involvement, the communication and cooperation of the family and the school was important, and that the families should receive training on family participation.</p> 2023-09-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities A Compilation of Sexuality and Parental Attitudes on Sexual Myths 2023-08-26T18:15:04+03:00 Zeynep Kevser KANDEMİR Ayşe ALBAYRAK Meryem KARAAZİZ <p>The concept of sexuality is an important concept that is still being researched since the beginning of humanity’s existence. It is one of the essential needs of human life. Sexuality plays an important role not only in meeting the psysical needs of the individual, but also in shaping the psychological and emotional needs of the individual. In order for the concept of sexuality, which starts from our childhood and manifest itself in every stage of our life, to develop in a healthy way, it is necessary to meet the concept of sexuality, especially during adolescence, the attitude of parents on sexuality, the circle of friends, etc. Factors such as these have great importance in shaping he individual’s perceptions of sexuality and sexual myths. The culture of&nbsp; the individual, the environment in which he lived, the environment in which he grew up affecct the persons perspective on sexulality to a great extent. Inaccurate information about sexuality can increase in the society over time and can be accepted as true by the society and create sexual myths. The excess of belief in sexual myths can significantly affect the sexual life of the individual and may even lead to sexual dysfunctions. At this point, parental attitudes and sexual myths about sexuality have led to the formation of different perspectives in society and greatly affect both the psychologial and sexual lives of individuals. In this context, this study has been reviewed and appropriate stıdies have been discussed, and a review study has been created by considering the effects of parental attitudes on sexuality, sexual myths together with the literatüre review.</p> 2023-09-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities TheEffect of School Principals' Management Style on Teachers' Perceptions of Organizational Cynicism 2023-08-15T17:08:57+03:00 Halil KARADAŞ Furat TİMUR <p class="B1" style="margin: 0cm; text-align: justify; line-height: normal;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; color: windowtext; text-transform: none; font-weight: normal;">With this research, it is aimed to determine the management style and organizational cynicism levels of school principals according to the opinions of teachers and to examine and evaluate them in terms of various variables. Answers to the sub-problems determined in line with the main problem of the research were sought. In this study, the survey research method, which is one of the quantitative research methods, was used, and the simple random sampling method was used in the selection of the sample. The sample of the study consists of 510 teachers, 210 women and 300 men. In the collection of research data, Personal Information Form was used to obtain information about the variables, Perceived Principal Management Style Scale was used to obtain school principals' management styles, and Organizational Cynicism Scale was used to obtain data on organizational cynicism. SPSS package program was used to analyze the data and analysis techniques were used. When the findings of the study are examined, it is seen that the organizational cynicism levels of the teachers are at a moderate level. In terms of perceived principal management styles according to teachers' opinions, it was stated by the teachers that in the cooperative management style sub-dimension, it is mostly at the level of authoritarian management style, indifferent management style and in the sub-dimension of the oppositional management style it is rarely at the level. Considering the analyzes on demographic variables, no significant difference was found in terms of marital status, graduation status, service status and education status in the organizational cynicism levels of teachers' opinions, only gender-related differences were detected. According to the teachers' views, in the management styles of the principal, authoritarian, disinterested, and defiant management style; authoritarian management style regarding graduation status; authoritarian, disinterested, and putative management style regarding marital status; A significant difference has been reached in the cooperative management style dimension related to the service year and in all management styles sub-dimensions related to the school level.</span></p> 2023-09-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Treatment and Analysis of Art Branches in Social Studies Course 2023-09-07T10:24:32+03:00 Harun KURT <p>The social studies course, which contains many necessary contents in human life, contains many elements that can be exemplified from the point of view of the branches of art, especially in subjects that come into contact with historical science as content. In the study, it was thought that if the subjects in the field of history were directed to art branches and works of art as content, it would be very useful to gain behaviors such as interest in art and love of art in students. What is wanted to be done and analyzed is that the effects of art and works of art on the student can be tested by highlighting them according to the content of the subject being processed. In order to evaluate the opportunities offered by social studies course, to know, to recognize the literary works and works of art related to the subject we are processing, and to introduce them to the student, appropriate documents and resources have been provided. Elements from different branches of art such as a song, anthem, painting, miniature, engraving, sculpture, relief, poetry, novel, theater work, dances, folkloric elements, oratorios, motion pictures have been added to the course content. In the content of the course topics, sections related to works of art were highlighted and processed, and it was tried to analyze whether this situation attracted the attention of the students at first, and then what consequences it had on their achievements in the course with project assignments. The research group was randomly divided into two parts according to the distribution of project assignments, one group was given homework topics with art content, and the other was given subjects with normal curriculum content. The grades obtained by the two groups from the assignments were compared and analyzed.</p> 2023-09-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities A Comparison Of The Impact Of Intentional And Incidental Learning On Vocabulary And Understanding Comprehension Text 2023-10-09T02:20:59+03:00 Murat ATA <p>Nowadays, with the dominance of communicative language teaching, the position of vocabulary and lexis in the field of language became significantly crucial in order to help learners develop communicative competence. To be able to negotiate with the target group of people, it is essential that the pool of vocabulary should be large enough to convey the meaning. In that case, the way how vocabulary is learned is brought into the debate. This study is intended to examine the impact of incidental and intentional vocabulary learning of Turkish learners of English on the vocabulary and comprehension tests. So as to carry out the objective of the comparison of intentional and incidental vocabulary learning, 40 freshmen studying at the Department of English Language Teaching participated in the study.&nbsp; Freshmen were divided into two groups as the intentional learning group and incidental learning group. The participants were presented with a reading text in which they were exposed to some specific words. The intentional learning group was notified earlier that they would be given a vocabulary test about targeted words and a reading comprehension test. However, the incidental learning group had no idea about the vocabulary test and comprehension check, the results indicate that there is no significant difference between intentional group and incidental group in terms of vocabulary learning.</p> 2023-09-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research In Economics Of Early Childhood Education Programmes 2023-10-25T22:07:11+03:00 Nyakwara BEGI <p>Globally, millions of children do not have access to early childhood education programmes. Early childhood education programmes are institutions which provide early care and education to young children. The programmes lay strong foundation for children’s development and education. The programmes have many benefits to children, families and economies. The benefits include: Provides adequate school readiness skills, leads to high achievement scores, produces more educated workers, creates more income and increased tax revenues. Investment in high quality early childhood education programmes builds human capital for economic development and breaks the cycle of poverty and inequalities. Countries should use early childhood education programmes as a tool for social and economic development.</p> 2023-09-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Türkiye’de Etkin Piyasalar Hipotezinin Geçerliliği: Fourier Temelli Birim Kök Testleri ve Rals-Adf Testlerinden Kanıtlar 2023-10-27T22:04:58+03:00 Ahmet KARDAŞLAR <p>Finans piyasaları kapsamında herhangi bir menkul kıymete ilişkin tüm bilgilerin eşanlı olarak fiyatlara yansıması durumunda piyasa etkin kabul edilmektedir. Etkin piyasa varsayımı altında yatırımcılar, piyasa koşullarında oluşan normal kâr düzeyinin üzerinde kazanç sağlayamamaktadır. Elbette bu durum tüm yatırımcıların menkul kıymete ilişkin bilgilere tam olarak ulaşabiliyor olmasıyla doğrudanilintilidir. LiteratürdeFama (1970) tarafından ortaya atılan Etkin Piyasalar Hipotezi, menkul kıymetlerin değerleri ve bilgi faktörü arasındaki ilişkiyi zayıf formda etkinlik, yarı-güçlü formda etkinlik ve güçlü formda etkinlikolmak üzere üç başlıkta tartışmaktadır. Bu çalışmada Türkiye için Etkin Piyasalar Hipotezinin zayıf formda etkin olup olmadığı ampirik olarak araştırılmaktadır. Ampirik çalışmalarda Etkin Piyasalar Hipotezinin geçerliliği, incelemeye konu olan menkul kıymet fiyatlarına dair serilerin durağanlık yapısı üzerinden sürdürülmektedir. Bu kapsamdaampirik incelememizBorsa İstanbul (BİST)’a ait 6 farklı endeks için 2009:1-2023:7 dönemi aylık gözlemleri kapsamaktadır. Analizler yumuşak yapısal kırılmaları içsel olarak modellemeye olanak sağlayan ve doğrusal olmayan durumları dikkate alanFourier-KPSS ve Fourier-KSS durağanlık testleri ileserilerin normal dağılıma sahip olmaması durumunda dahi tutarlı sonuçlar üretebilen RALS-ADF birim kök yöntemleriyle gerçekleştirilecektir. Yapılan sınamalar ışığındaBİSTiçin Etkin Piyasalar Hipotezinin zayıf formda etkinliğinin geçerli olduğuna işaret etmektedir. Diğer bir ifadeyle yatırımcılarmenkul kıymet fiyatlarına ilişkin tarihsel bilgi setlerini kullanarak piyasa koşullarında oluşan normal kâr düzeyinin üzerinde kazanç elde edememektedirler.</p> 2023-09-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities İslam'da Devlet ve Yönetim Anlayışının Müslüman Türk Devletleri'nde Benimsenmesi ve Son Uygulama Alanı Olarak Osmanlı Devleti'ndeki Durumuna Dair Tespitler 2023-10-30T07:45:00+03:00 Hasan YAVUZ Yaşar DEMİR <p>Asırlar boyu üç kıtada hüküm süren Türk Devletleri'ni böylesine uzun yıllar ayakta tutan en önemli saiklerden biri de hiç şüphe yok ki İslamiyeti kabul etmeleridir. Türkler Kur'an'ın hükümlerini ve Hz. Muhammed'in söz ve davranışlarını yalnızca kişisel yaşantılarında değil, bürokrasiden diplomasiye devlet yönetiminin her kademesinde de etkin şekilde uygulamışlardır. Böylelikle yeryüzünde barışın ve adaletin tesisi sağlanmış, Türk-İslam Devleti kavramının en güçlü örnekleri olan Selçuklu ve Osmanlı Devleti'nin egemenliğindeki alanlarda bulunan toplumlar yüzlerce yıl huzur içerisinde yaşamışlardır. Medeniyetin tesisi de böylelikle gerçekleşmiştir. Bu çalışmada, İslam'da devlet ve idareci kavramlarının nasıl anlaşıldığı üzerinde durularak, Selçuklu ve Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'nda nasıl uygulandığına dair bazı tespitler yapılacaktır.&nbsp;</p> 2023-09-19T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities