ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities 2021-06-17T04:31:45+06:00 Firuz FEVZI Open Journal Systems <p>ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences &amp; Humanities is an open access, peer-reviewed, international indexed and refereed journal published by IEDSR ASSOCIATION. Its main objective is to provide an intellectual platform for the international scholars. It aims to promote interdisciplinary studies in humanities and social science and become the leading journal in humanities and social science in the world.</p> The Procyclicality of the Leverage Ratio in Turkish Banking Sector 2021-05-17T09:24:34+06:00 Sultan SARI <p>The leverage ratio is an important ratio, especially in the banking sector. In this study, it is researched whether the leverage ratio in Turkish banking sector is influenced from the procyclicality in the Turkish economy or how it is influenced. For this purpose, it is focused on leverage ratio and asset rate. As leverage ratio, it is used the external assets / total shareholder’s equity rate and also the total assets / total shareholder’s equity. As indicator for asset quality and change is used the total loans / total assets in Turkish banking sector. The relationship between the leverage ratios and the total loans / total asset rate in the condition of the all else being equal is analysed empirically as a whole with the quarterly banking cumulative sectorial data between 2007 - 2019 by ARDL ( Auto-Regresive Distributed Lag ) method for first time. According to the analysis results, there is a positive and statistically significant relationship between each of the leverage ratios and the total loans / total assets rate in the long run. It indicates that the leverage ratio is procyclical. It means that the leverage ratio increase and also the total loans / total assets rate in banking sector increase. To conclude, as the credit policy, it is recommended to determine countercyclical policy during financial expansion periods for the financial stability.</p> 2021-06-16T00:00:00+06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Digitalization and Post-Digitalization in Sports 2021-05-12T21:02:02+06:00 Çağla SEVİNDİK Selçuk Bora ÇAVUŞOĞLU <p>Technology has a huge impact on rapid and radical changes in the development of itself in the 21st century. Advancements in economy and culture as well as in sports, deeply affect the expectations and perspectives of individuals. These shifts have enabled people born in different periods to have distinct personalities, perspectives and values. There is a very important factor to lead this development; digitalization. With the development of communication technologies and the changing generation, digital natives in terminological terms have contributed to the emergence of new platforms. With digitalization, the world of sports has gained different dynamics, and with the increase in computer environments and games, the transition from traditional sports to digital environments has started. The point that makes the difference in this new sports activity, where mental abilities are more prominent than physical effort, is the mindset during the game. It is necessary to interpret the relationship between sports and game sectors correctly and to examine how effective digitalization is in these two areas. The pupose of this study is to reveal the understanding of the sports that develop with digitalization in terms of generations. Document analysis technique was used for this research.</p> <p>As a result of the analysis of the research, differences were observed in the habits of the generations in terms of social with the digitalization of society. The fact that generation z grew up in an environment with intense technological possibilities has led to a change in the way of playing games. Examples of digitalization and digital transformation have begun to come to life in many areas from new sports to sports organizations. Especially for people who want to stay away from the crowded environment during the pandemic process, the digital entry of events into homes has been the solution to maintain the original atmosphere.</p> 2021-06-16T00:00:00+06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Is Teamwork and Professional Autonomy Compatible and Result in Improved Hospital Care? 2021-04-16T00:25:46+06:00 Sibel ORHAN Muhammet GÜMÜŞ Ayşenur CEYLAN Emine KIZILKAYA <p>To investigate the relationship between patient and nurse interdisciplinary teamwork with autonomy, an online survey in which 10,022 nurses in 32 hospitals participating in Turkey are made and evaluated the quality of nursing care. It was found that the basic variables of nursing autonomy, control over resources, relationship with doctors, emotional exhaustion and decision-making were correlated with each other, as well as the quality of care assessed with nurses and nurse satisfaction. Nursing autonomy has been positively associated with better perception of the quality of service provided and higher levels of job satisfaction. Analysis of teamwork by job characteristics showed that there is a small but significant difference in teamwork level between full-time and part-time nurses. There were no significant differences in terms of contract type (permanent and short term), service / unit's expertise, shift length or job title. Nurses with higher teamwork scores are significantly more likely to be satisfied with their jobs, planning to stay in their jobs, and burnout scores. Higher teamwork scores were associated with higher nurse-assessed quality of care, perceived quality improvement over the past year, and patients' confidence that they could manage their care upon discharge. Nurses with higher teamwork scores also resulted in higher levels of autonomy and were more involved in the decision-making process. There is a strong relationship between teamwork and autonomy; this interaction suggested synergy rather than conflict. Therefore, organizations encourage nurse autonomy without fear, as it can undermine teamwork.</p> 2021-06-16T00:00:00+06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Mesut Ozil Transfer of Fenerbahçe Sports Club from Corporate Image Window 2021-05-09T01:20:10+06:00 Mehmet Ali HOROZOĞLU Selçuk Bora ÇAVUŞOĞLU <p>The purpose of this study is to examine the Mesut Özil Transfer, which Fenerbahçe sports club made in 2021 and has an undeniable impact worldwide, from the framework of its Corporate Image. Corporate image is the reputation of the firm with a variety of audiences that is important to it. The concept of corporate image is a concept that is frequently encountered in today's world and is of central importance by both institutions and companies. The subject of the research has been shaped within the framework of corporate image due to the increase in the importance of the concept of corporate image in recent years and the fact that the media dimension is intertwined with the corporate image, as well as sports clubs use transfer policies as a tool, especially in terms of corporate image. Under the Sports Clubs' use of transfers as a tool within the framework of Institutional Image; In addition to increasing club revenues, clubs are willing to increase their recognition level. In order to reach the purpose of the research effectively and to shed light on the scientific world in the future studies, the compilation method, one of the types of research designs, was applied and a theoretical analysis method was used. As a result of the analysis of the findings of the research, the increase in the value of Fenerbahçe sports club thanks to the transfer of Mesut Özil in the world stock markets, as well as club revenues, uniform sales rates, licensed product sales rates and finally the increase in the number of followers of social media accounts and the revenues from social media channels due to this increase. It is concluded that it has increased.</p> 2021-06-16T00:00:00+06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities The Relationship Between Health Expenditure and Economic Growth: The Case of Turkey 2021-04-19T17:06:21+06:00 Sinan ÇINAR Banu HAS <p><strong>Özet</strong></p> <p>Çalışmanın amacı, Türkiye ekonomisinde sağlık harcamalarının ekonomik büyüme üzerindeki etkisinin döviz kurunun da göz önünde bulundurularak analiz edilmesidir. 1975 ile 2019 yılları için sağlık harcamaları ve ekonomik büyüme arasındaki ilişkinin döviz kuru ile birlikte yapısal kırılmalı ekonometrik analizler aracılığıyla incelenmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Çalışmada bağımlı değişken iktisadi büyüme oranı, bağımsız değişkenler ise sağlık harcamaları ve döviz kurudur. Çalışmada kullanılan yöntem Gregory Hansen yapısal kırılmalı eşbütünleşme analizidir. Çalışma, güncel verilerle ilgili değişkenler arasındaki ilişkiyi yapısal kırılmaları da dikkate alarak incelemesi ve sağlık harcamalarının ekonomik büyüme oranı üzerindeki etkisini döviz kurunu da göz önünde bulundurarak değerlendirmesi yönünden literatüre katkı sağlamaktadır. Elde edilen bulgulara göre, sağlık harcamaları, ekonomik büyüme oranı ve döviz kuru serilerinin uzun dönemde eşbütünleşik bir ilişkiye sahip olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Ayrıca sağlık harcamaları ile ekonomik büyüme oranı arasında çift yönlü ve kuvvetli bir nedensellik ilişkisiyle beraber, döviz kurundan sağlık harcamalarına doğru da tek yönlü kuvvetli bir nedensellik ilişkisi bulunduğu sonucu elde edilmiştir.</p> 2021-06-16T00:00:00+06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Investigation of Activities in Primary School Mathematics Course Book According to the Intellectual Development Principles 2021-04-29T02:13:53+06:00 Hatice BOZKURT Begüm ÖZMUSUL <p>The aim of this study is to examine the activities given in the primary school first grade mathematics textbook according to the principles of intellectual development. Document analysis method was used in the study. Primary school mathematics 1 textbook, which is used as a textbook in public schools in the 2020-2021 academic year, was used as the document. The data were analysed using descriptive analysis method. In the descriptive analysis, the theoretical framework of intellectual development principles given in Bruner (1966) was used. With the help of this framework, the activities given in the textbook were classified according to the codes of enactive, iconic and symbolic modes. In an activity, the use of one, two or three of these modes together was examined. According to the findings obtained from the research, it was concluded that there are mostly activities involving iconic mode in all learning areas in the textbook. Symbolic modes are the most common form of mode after iconic modes. It is seen that the activities including the enactive-iconic modes are mostly in the field of learning geometry and the least number of operations outcomes. It has been found that the proportion of activities involving enactive-iconic-symbolic levels activities are high. Activities where three modes are used together can contribute to students' multifaceted learning of the concept. In this respect, the hierarchical order in Bruner's intellectual development principles coincides with this principle. It can be said that it would be more appropriate to start from the lowest level of the hierarchical level in Bruner's model in terms of almost every acquisition in terms of intellectual development of primary school 1st grade students being at the beginning of the learning process. In this respect, it can be suggested that the textbooks should be rearranged and teachers design their learning processes in this direction.</p> 2021-06-16T00:00:00+06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Marketing Structure and Opportunities of Almonds Products in Samangan and Balkh Provinces, Afghanistan 2021-04-28T21:39:40+06:00 Ismet BOZ Ahmad Jawid ABDUL KHALIQ <p>The objective of the study was to identify the marketing structure and opportunities of almond products in the Samangan and Balkh provinces. The primary data were obtained from questionnaires conducted by face to face interviews with the 125 small scale almond producers and 42 intermediaries, and the secondary data collected from various sources. The collected data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric statistical methods. According to the results of the study, the average age was 45.13 years for almond farmers and 41.44 years for intermediaries. The average schooling years were 5.40 years for farmers and 9.43 years for intermediaries. While most of the farmers were elementary school graduates, the majority of the intermediaries were secondary school graduates. The strongest aspects of the almond marketing sector in the region are the experience of the farmers and their high interest in this product. The most important opportunities are the good experience of farmers, the adaptation of almonds in Balkh and Samangan, the interest of the farmer in horticulture, availability of substantial varieties of almonds, exports competitiveness of almond products of the region, and the favorable climatic conditions. The study concludes that the government and NGOs should support producers and intermediaries in developing the infrastructure of local markets. They should provide farmers with agricultural inputs at affordable prices, implement capacity building programs, inform all stakeholders on input and product prices, develop credit opportunities, and support farmers' organizations.</p> 2021-06-17T00:00:00+06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Lessons from COVID-19 Pandemic: A Preliminary Analysis of Bangladesh’s Responses 2021-04-02T16:16:20+06:00 Rifat Mahmud <p>The first wave of the COVID- 19 disease has caused a daunting and unprecedented challenge for governments of the world. Decision-makers worldwide, including that of Bangladesh, had to initiate responses that were beyond the conventional measures. This paper offers the decision-makers in Bangladesh on the possible learning in the field of crisis management during this pandemic. The paper aims in focusing on the first phase of responses to COVID-19 (March-May) from the initial lockdown to the reopening of offices by the government of Bangladesh. Methodologically, the paper is a content analysis involving netnography approach of data collection from websites. The paper presents a finding of possible lessons of crisis responses in Bangladesh. The paper aims to create an agenda for learning lessons from the situation of the largest crisis to hit the world in centuries. The paper induces substantial value for policy-makers to be prepared for the second wave of the COVID- 19 crisis, to meet the challenges of the pandemic.</p> 2021-06-17T00:00:00+06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Investigation of Secondary School Students' Utilization Levels of Information Technologies in Terms of Different Variables 2021-04-24T17:57:09+06:00 Enes Abdurrahman BİLGİN <p>Nowadays, thanks to the developing and widespread technological opportunities, information technologies have begun to be widely used by students and teachers at all levels of education. These technologies are especially important for secondary school students, for whom concretization is of great importance. In this context, this study aimed to examine the utilization levels of middle school students in information technologies. For this purpose, scanning model, which is one of the quantitative research methods, was preferred. The "Information Technology Utilization Scale" developed by Özmusul (2011) for secondary school students was used as a data collection tool in the study. The reliability coefficient for the scale was reported as 0.85 and it has a four-point Likert type. On the other hand, the participants consisted of 59 students who were determined by the appropriate sampling method and studying at secondary schools in Erciş district of Van province in the fall semester of the 2019-2020 academic year. In the study, how the students' level of using information technologies differ according to factors such as gender, class, general success level, parental education level and internet access was also analyzed statistically. During the data analysis process, normality tests, , Mann Whitney U test and one-way analysis of variance tests were used and the results were interpreted according to the 5% significance level. According to the findings, it was concluded that the students generally benefited from information technologies at a rate of 73%. In addition, it was concluded that these levels did not change significantly according to the students 'general grade averages, parents' education levels and other variables examined, but female students had a significantly higher level of use than male students.</p> 2021-06-17T00:00:00+06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Pandemi Sürecinde Spor Salonlarında Egzersiz Yapan Kişilerde Gıda Takviyesi Kullanma Durumunun İncelenmesi 2021-04-07T22:21:06+06:00 Ezgi SAMAR <p><em>Amaç:</em> Çalışmada pandemi sürecinde spor salonlarında egzersiz yapan kişilerde gıda takviyesi kullanma durumu incelenmiştir.</p> <p><em>Yöntem:</em> Çalışma Artvin ve Kars ilinde özel spor salonlarında pandemi sürecinde egzersiz yapan gönüllü 153 kişiyle yapılmıştır. Anket formu 27 soru olup ilk 17 soru kişisel bilgi ve diğer 10 soruda gıda takviyesi ile ilgilidir. Veriler frekans analizi, ortalama, minimum maksimum değer, standart sapma ve parametrik olmayan bulgular için Ki-kare testi ve Mann- Whitney U ile değerlendirilmiştir.</p> <p><em>Bulgular:</em> Katılımcıların pandemi sürecinde gıda takviyesi kullanma durumlarına bakıldığında; %58.8’inin kullanmamış, %41.2’sinin ise kullanmıştır. Cinsiyete göre; kadınların %26’sı ve erkeklerin %37’si, yaşa göre; 21-30 yaşta %38.5, 31-40 yaşta %43.1 ve 41-50 yaşta %47.1’i, eğitim durumlarına göre; lise %38’i, önlisans %47.1’i ve lisans mezunlarının %40.6’sı gıda takviyesi kullanmaktadırlar. Katılımcıların %50.32’si bağışıklık sistemini güçlendirmek, %27.09’u sağlığını korumak, %26.45’i enerjik hissetmek, %23.87’si kilo kontrolü ,%23.22’si demir veya vitamin eksiklikleri ve %20.64’ü kasları güçlendirmek için kullandığını gözlenmiştir. En fazla vitamin D kullanılmıştır (n=42).</p> <p><em>Sonuç:</em> Pandemi sürecinde katılımcıların %58.8’inin herhangi bir gıda takviyesi kullanmadığı, %41.2’sinin ise kullandığı tespit edilmiştir. Pandemi sürecinde hastalıktan korunmak için güçlü bir bağışıklık sistemine sahip olmak gerekmektedir. Bu bağlamda doğru ve doktor kontrolünde kullanılan gıda takviyelerinin sağlıklı beslenmeye yardımcı olacağı düşünülmektedir.</p> 2021-06-15T00:00:00+06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities