ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities <p>ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences &amp; Humanities is an open access, peer-reviewed, international indexed and refereed journal published by IEDSR ASSOCIATION. Its main objective is to provide an intellectual platform for the international scholars. It aims to promote interdisciplinary studies in humanities and social science and become the leading journal in humanities and social science in the world.</p> ISPEC Institute en-US ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities 2717-7262 Inactivity of Parliamentarians in National Parliament of Bangladesh: Impacts on Parliamentary Democracy <p><em>There is a growing interest in the inactive role of parliamentarians in measuring the success of parliamentary democracy. In this research firstly, it explored the inactive role of the parliamentarians among the eighth, ninth and tenth parliament of Bangladesh national parliment, where it observed that the parliamentarians of both oppositions and the ruling party remained inactive in lawmaking to oversight functions. The main causes of this inactivity of the parliamentarians are apathy to discuss and debate in the parliament, seventy articles of the constitution, the dearth of knowledge of the parliamentary norms, and business politics nexus. The impacts of this inactivity of the parliamentarians are the declining of parliament, which is taking place by the executive and this inactivity serves as a barrier to the process of institutionalization of parliamentary democracy.</em></p> Md. Al-Amin Copyright (c) 2021 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities 2021-02-02 2021-02-02 5 1 1 17 10.46291/ISPECIJSSHvol5iss1pp1-17 Cooperation Between the Regional Cooperation Organization for Development Member Countries to Develop Tourism <p>The aim of the study is to investigate and determine the tourism works of RCD (Regional Cooperation for Development), which was established between Turkey, Pakistan and Iran in 1964. As a result of literature researches conducted in this direction, the information obtained was discussed in chronological order. Three RCD member countries are the countries with historical, cultural and geographical heritage that can be utilized in the field of tourism. Three countries have the potential to realize tourism in various field. The increase in international tourism demand and the low cost of developing tourism compared to other fields encourages developing countries to develop international tourism. In the 1960s, it is seen that RCD member countries also made an effort to increase touristic activity within the RCD region and to attract tourists from outside the region. With the establishment of the RCD in 1964, the committees gathered on the issue of developing and expanding tourism in the region, a work process was initiated in which it was discussed in detail at the Planning Organization and the Council of Ministers meetings. At the first Council of Ministers meeting in Tehran in October 1964, it was decided that the three countries would sign a tourism agreement and abolish mutual visas. It was stated that the purpose of this meeting was to enable easy travel in the region and bring the people of the three countries closer to each other. In the following meetings, decisions such as the opening of tourist bureaus by member countries, inviting travel writers and representatives of travel agencies from other countries, ensuring that the road and traffic signs of the three countries would comply with the UN rules were taken. Implementation works such as bringing the customs law into compliance with the UN Convention, simplifying the baggage inspection rules, opening fairs and exhibitions to promote tourism, participation in cultural events and making tourism propaganda were initiated. Arrangements such as facilitating the investments that a country wants to make in the other two countries, joint preparation of publications for tourism purposes and joint investments in the field of tourism were made. Efforts were made to encourage young people to take touristic trips in the region. However, in the following process, it is seen that studies were initiated to go out of the region tourism and open the region to world tourism. For this, the studies to determine the tourism potential of the whole region and to evaluate the existing potential were initiated. By 1970, it was decided that the RCD secretariat should have investigated the possibilities of providing financial and technical assistance from a suitable one of the UN Members in order to conduct a tourism research within the scope of the regional plot principles. In this way, studies were carried out between the three countries within the scope of the RCD.</p> Ay┼če ERKMEN Copyright (c) 2021 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities 2021-02-02 2021-02-02 5 1 18 31 10.46291/ISPECIJSSHvol5iss1pp18-31 The Case of Zelman v Simmons-Harris and the Shifts in American Secularism <p>Through the lenses of the case of<em> Zelman v Simmons-Harris(2002)</em>, this article discusses the American concept of secularism<em>.</em> Unlike the direct government aid to religious activities in various European and Turkish political systems, the American government supports religious instruction only indirectly. Even though the government programs providing financial aid for religion has always faced rigorous examination in the Supreme Court, the current case law of the Court opens the door for a significant amount of unspecified cash flow to religious schools. Thanks to this constitutional pass, it is possible for future politics and legislative endeavors to reshape the contours of state-religion relations in the field of education. Thus, the distinct feature of American secularism based on separation between church and state might bend further.</p> Nesrin UNLU Copyright (c) 2021 ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities 2021-02-02 2021-02-02 5 1 32 50 10.46291/ISPECIJSSHvol5iss1pp32-50