Social and Emotional Competence of School Leaders: a Scoping Review

Abstract views: 223 / PDF downloads: 124


  • Judicaël ALLADATIN Mohammed VI Polytechnique University
  • Appoline FONTON Mohammed VI Polytechnic University
  • Juste MEHOU Siabanni, Parakou, Benin



Social and Emotional Learning, Scoping-Review, Socio-Emotional Competencies, School Leader


Socio-emotional skills are now being increasingly recognized as important contributors to the effectiveness of educational systems and programs. This has been demonstrated in various studies regarding the nurturing of teachers' social and emotional learning (SEL) skills, that yield the same result: the crucial importance of improving students' academic performance and their socio-emotional skills. This study examined research addressing the effects of SEL development in  the school setting. It found that teachers have been the only target beneficiaries of SEL development work to date, leaving school leaders (principals) out of the picture. As the latter represent the bridge between the people outside and those inside the schools, targeting school principals for training in socio-emotional competencies (SEC) appears very urgent for more impactful results in the learning and socio-emotional development of teachers and students.

Furthermore, developing the SEC of principals will also allow them to curb emotional overload and flourish   in their professional career development as well as beyond the school setting and inside their households.



Aebischer, V.; Oberlé, D. Le groupe en psychologie sociale, 6e éd. entièrement revue et actualisée.; Psycho sup; Dunod: Malakoff, 2021.

Bartanen, B., Grissom, J. A., & Rogers, L. K. (2019). The impacts of principal turnover. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 41(3), 350-374.

Beaumont, C.; Garcia, N. L’apprentissage socioémotionnel à l’école primaire : compétences attendues des enseignants et formation initiale. Rech. En Éducation 2020, No. 41.

Beisser, S. R., Peters, R. E., & Thacker, V. M. (2014). Balancing passion and priorities: An investigation of health and wellness practices of secondary school principals. NASSP Bulletin, 98(3), 237-255.

Brown, M. T. Jeunes Adultes Non Accrédités : Au-Delà de La Perte Économique Aux Conséquences Émotionnelles de l’échec Scolaire. Urban Educ. 2018, 1–26.

Byrne-Jiménez, M.; Orr, M. T. Thinking in Three Dimensions: Leadership for Capacity Building, Sustainability, and Succession. J. Cases Educ. Leadersh. 2012, 15 (3), 33–46.

Byrne-Jiménez, M.; Orr, M. T. Thinking in Three Dimensions: Leadership for Capacity Building, Sustainability, and Succession. J. Cases Educ. Leadersh. 2012, 15 (3), 33–46.

Castel. Effective Social and Emotional Learning Programs. 2013.

Chader, A. Le leadership émotionnel : les compétences émotionnelles au service du leadership. phdthesis, Université Paul Valéry - Montpellier III, 2019.

Chandra, Y. Online Education during COVID-19: Perception of Academic Stress and Emotional Intelligence Coping Strategies among College Students. Asian Educ. Dev. Stud. 2020, 10 (2), 229–238.

Devis-Rozental, C. Developing Socio-Emotional Intelligence in Higher Education Scholars; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2018.

Doss, C. J.; Steiner, E. D.; Hamilton, L. S. Teacher Perspectives on Social and Emotional Learning in Massachusetts: Findings from the American Teacher Panel; RAND Corporation, 2019.

Durlak, J. A.; Weissberg, R. P.; Dymnicki, A. B.; Taylor, R. D.; Schellinger, K. B. The Impact of Enhancing Students’ Social and Emotional Learning: A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Universal Interventions. Child Dev. 2011, 82 (1), 405–432.

Edge, K.; Descours, K.; Oxley, L. Generation X Leaders from London, New York and Toronto: Conceptions of Social Identity and the Influence of City-Based Context. Educ. Manag. Adm. Leadersh. 2017, 45 (5), 863–883.

Fullan, M. Leading in a Culture of Change; John Wiley & Sons, 2007.

Goleman, D. Emotional Intelligence. Why It Can Matter More than IQ. Learning 1996, 24 (6), 49–50.

Goleman, D. Social Intelligence: The New Science of Human Relationships; Arrow Books: London, 2007.

Gupta, M. D.; Engelman, R.; Levy, J.; Luchsinger, G.; Merrick, T.; Rosen, J. E. L’État de la population mondiale 2014. 136.

Jennings, P. A.; Brown, J. L.; Frank, J. L.; Doyle, S.; Oh, Y.; Davis, R.; Rasheed, D.; DeWeese, A.; DeMauro, A. A.; Cham, H.; Greenberg, M. T. Impacts of the CARE for Teachers Program on Teachers’ Social and Emotional Competence and Classroom Interactions. J. Educ. Psychol. 2017, 109 (7), 1010–1028.

Jonson, C. L.; Moon, M. M.; Hendry, J. A. One Size Does Not Fit All: Traditional Lockdown Versus Multioption Responses to School Shootings. J. Sch. Violence 2020, 19 (2), 154–166.

Kappagoda, U. W. M. R. S. The Relationship between Principals’ Emotional Intelligence and Teachers’ Job Satisfaction: A Case of National Schools in Sri Lanka; SSRN Scholarly Paper 2216372; Social Science Research Network: Rochester, NY, 2011.

Ma, N.; Xin, S.; Du, J.-Y. A Peer Coaching-Based Professional Development Approach to Improving the Learning Participation and Learning Design Skills of In-Service Teachers. J. Educ. Technol. Soc. 2018, 21 (2), 291–304.

Mahfouz, J.; Gordon, D. P. Les Arguments En Faveur de l’accent Mis Sur Les Compétences Socio-Émotionnelles Des Directeurs d’école. Manag. Educ. 2021, 35 (4), 189–193.

Mahfouz, J.; Greenberg, M. T.; Rodriguez, A. Principals’ Social and Emotional Competence : A Key Factor for Creating Caring Schools. 2019, 14.

Miller, A. (2013). Principal turnover and student achievement. Economics of Education Review, 36, 60-72.

Patti, J.; Holzer, A. A.; Brackett, M. A.; Stern, R. Twenty-First-Century Professional Development for Educators: A Coaching Approach Grounded in Emotional Intelligence. Coach. Int. J. Theory Res. Pract. 2015, 8 (2), 96–119.

Peplar, D. L’apprentissage Socio-Émotionnel (ASE). Bien-Être Santé Ment. 2017, 27.

Raja, R.; Nagasubramani, P. C. Impact of Modern Technology in Education. J. Appl. Adv. Res. 2018, S33–S35.

Rangel, S. V. A Review of the Literature on Principal Turnover. Rev. Educ. Res. 2018, 88 (1), 87–124.

Robinson, K.; Aronica, L. Creative Schools. The Grassroots Revolution That’s Transforming Education. Metod. Ogl. 2016, 5.

Salovey, P.; Mayer, J. D. Intelligence Émotionnelle. Imagin. Cogn. Personal. 1990, 9 (3), 185–211.

Schonert-Reichl, K. A. Social and Emotional Learning and Teachers. Future Child. 2017, 27 (1), 137–155.

Sklad, M.; Diekstra, R.; Ritter, M. D.; Ben, J.; Gravesteijn, C. Effectiveness of School-Based Universal Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Programs: Do They Enhance Students’ Development in the Area of Skill, Behavior, and Adjustment? Psychol. Sch. 2012, 49 (9), 892–909.

Social and Emotional Learning Programme Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis. Camb. J. Educ. 2016, 46 (3), 347–376.

Snodgrass Rangel, V. Une Revue de La Littérature Sur Le Roulement Principal. Rev. Educ. Res. 2018, 88 (1), 87–124.

Social and Emotional Learning: Past, Present, and Future. In Handbook of social and emotional learning: Research and practice; Weissberg, R. P., Durlak, J. A., Domitrovich, C. E., Gullotta, T. P., Eds.; The Guilford Press: New York, NY, US, 2015; pp 3–19.

Solomon, B.; Katz, E.; Steed, H.; Temkin, D. Creating Policies to Support Healthy Schools: Policymaker, Educator, and Student Perspectives. 2018, 38.

Taylor, R. D.; Oberle, E.; Durlak, J. A.; Weissberg, R. P. Promoting Positive Youth Development Through School-Based Social and Emotional Learning Interventions: A Meta-Analysis of Follow-Up Effects. Child Dev. 2017, 88 (4), 1156–1171.

Wigelsworth, M.; Lendrum, A.; Oldfield, J.; Scott, A.; ten Bokkel, I.; Tate, K.; Emery, C. The Impact of Trial Stage, Developer Involvement and International Transferability on Universal Howley, A.; Andrianaivo, S.; Perry, J. The Pain Outweighs the Gain: Why Teachers Don. Teach. Coll. Rec. 2005, 107 (4), 757–782.




How to Cite

ALLADATIN, J., FONTON , A., & MEHOU, J. (2022). Social and Emotional Competence of School Leaders: a Scoping Review . ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 6(1), 27–34.