Developing and Doing Validity and Reliability of the Motivational Factors Scale of Recreational Motorcycle Usage

Authors

  • Prof. Dr. Faik Ardahan Akdeniz University, Sport Science Faculty, Recreation Department, Antalya/TURKEY
  • Selçuk GÜLEÇ Physical Education Teacher, Huseyin Ak Middle School, Antalya Provincial Directorate of National Education Antalya/TURKEY, selcukgulec07@gmail.com

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.46291/ISPECIJSSHvol4iss3pp129-144

Keywords:

Validity and Reliability, Motivational Factors, Recreation, Motorcycle

Abstract

The main aim of this study is to develop “The Motivational Factors Scale of Recreational Motorcycle Usage - RMKO” and define the validity and reliability for Turkish population. The study was descriptive and sampling group was consisted of 947 volunteer participants all around Turkey. For data collection, e-questionnaire form sent to participants who have Facebook group and Associations of Recreational Motorcycle User, Motorcycle Clubs and Institutions as email. 948 feedbacks were received between 01st December 2016 and 31th May 2017. Six of items of 45 items excluded due to low initial communalities (<0.40) in after first Explatory Factor Analysis (AFA). For the validity of EFA with rest 39 items, Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity and Kaiser–Meyer–Oklin (KMO) have been run, and Pearson Correlation Test has been used for identify correlations between items and components and the results have been assessed in 0.01 and 0.05 significant level. RMKO was grouped into eight factors. These factors are “Socialization”, “To be away and Relaxing”, “Experiencing the Power of Motorcycle”, “Physical Activity and Healthy”, “Renovate/Developed”, “Self-Competition /Achievement”, “Exemplifying”, “Recognition”. As a result, it can be concluded that “The Motivational Factor Scale of Recreational Motorcycle Usage - RMKO” has reliability and validity in the estimation of the reasons of recreational usage of motorcycle for the Turkish population.

References

Allen, M.W. (2002). Human values and product symbolism: do consumers form product preference by comparing the human values symbolized by a product to the human values that they endorse? 1. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 32 (12), 2475-2501.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2002.tb02752.x

Anable, J. and Gatersleben, B. (2005). All work and no play? The role of instrumental and affective factors in work and leisure journeys by different travel modes. Transp. Res. A Policy Pract. 39 (2), 163-181.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2004.09.008

Ardahan, F. (2012). Reliability and Validity of Recreational Fishing Motivation Scale in Turkish Population. Turkish Journal of Sport And Exercise, 14(3):59-65.

Ardahan, F. and Mert, M. (2013). The Validity and Reliability of Motivational Factors Scale and The Benefits Scale of Participating in Mountaineering Activities for Turkish Population, The Online Journal of Recreation and Sport. 2(4): 49-63.

Ardahan, F. and Mert, M. (2014). Developing The Motivational Factors Scale Of Cycling and The Validity and Reliability For Turkish Population. ASOS Journal, The Journal of Academic Social Science. 2(1):409-427.

https://doi.org/10.16992/ASOS.120

Auster, C. (2001). Transcending potential antecedent leisure constraints: The case of women motorcycle operators. Journal of Leisure Research, 33(3), 272-298.

https://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.2001.11949942

Buchanan, T. (1985). Commitment and leisure behavior: A theoretical perspective. Leisure Sciences. 7: 401-420.

https://doi.org/10.1080/01490408509512133

Chang, H.L. and Lai, C.Y. (2015). Using travel socialization and underlying motivations to better understand motorcycle usage in Taiwan. Accident Analysis and Prevention 79: 212-220.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2015.03.023

Christmas, S., Young, D., Cookson, R. and Cuerden, R. (2009). Passion, Performance, Practicality: Motorcyclists' Motivations and Attitudes to Safety - Motorcycle Safety Research Project. Project Record: PPRO 4/001/043. Transport Research Laboratory. Department for Transport, Road User Safety.

Daniello, A., Gabler, H. and Mehta, Y. (2009). Effectiveness of motorcycle training and licensing. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, (2140), 206-213.

https://doi.org/10.3141/2140-23

Deci, E.L. (1975). Intrinsic motivation. New York: Plenum Press.

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-4446-9

Deci, E.L. and Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Plenum Press.

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-2271-7

Deci, E.L. and Ryan, R.M. (1991). A motivational approach to self-Integration in personality. In R. Dientsbier (Ed. ), Nebraska symposium on motivation: Vol: 38, Perspectives on motivation (ss. 237-388). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Dittmar, H. (1992). The Social Psychology of Material Possessions: To Have is to Be. Harvester Wheatsheaf, Hemel Hempstead.

Driver, B.L. (1983). Master list of items from Recreation Experience Preference scales and domain. Unpublished document. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Engeström, Y., Miettinen, R. and Punamaki, R.L. (2003). Perspective On Activity Theory, Cambiridge University Press, Second Edition, NY, 10011-4211, USA

Haworth, N. (2012). Powered two wheelers in a changing world - Challenges and opportunities. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 44(1), 12-18.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2010.10.031

Huth, V., Füssl, E. and Risser, R. (2014). Motorcycle riders' perceptions, attitudes and strategies: Findings from a focus group study. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 25, 74-85.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2014.05.004

Ibrahim H. and Cordes, K.A. (2002). Outdoor Recreation, Enrichment For a Lifetime, Second Edition, Sagamore Publishing, Il.

Jackson, S.A., and Eklund, R. C. (2002). Assessing flow in physical activity: The flow state scale and dispositional flow scale. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 24, 133-150.

https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.24.2.133

Kaiser, H. F. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika. 39:31-36.

https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02291575

Kaplan Kalkan, A. and Ardahan, F. (2012). The Profile of the Outdoor Sports Participants and the Reason and the Benefits of Participating Outdoor Sports: Antalya Case. 12 th International Sport Science Congress. December 12-14, Denizli, Turkey.

Krige, M. (1995). Quantitative report on the profile of Australian motorcycle riders, Public Education Market Research Report 2/95. Canberra: Federal Office of Road Safety.

Kyle, G.T., Absher, J.D., Hammit, W.E. and Cavin. J. (2006). An Examination of the Motivation-Involvement Relationship. Leisure Sciences. 28: 467-485. doi: 10.1080/01490400600851320

https://doi.org/10.1080/01490400600851320

MacCallum, R.C., Widaman, K.F., Zhang, S. and Hong, S. (1999). Sample size in fac¬tor analysis. Psychological Methods. 4 (1):84-99.

https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.4.1.84

Manfredo, M., Driver, B.L. and Tarrant M.A. (1996). Measuring leisure motivation: a meta-analysis of the recreation experience preference scales. Journal of Leisure Research, 28(3):188-213.

https://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.1996.11949770

Pintrich, P.R. (2000). An Achievement Goal Theory Perspective on Issues in Motivation Terminology, Theory and Research. Contemporary Educational Psychology.25, 92-104.

https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1999.1017

Ryan, R.M. and Deci, E.L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. Am. Psychol. 55 (1), 68.

https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68

Schulz, U. (1993). Freizeitmotivationen von Motorradfahrern und ihre Auswirkungen auf die Verkehrssicherheit. Zeitschrift für Verkehrssicherheit, 39, 68-81.

Schulz, U. (1994). Laut ist out?- Einstellungen von Motorradfahrern zum Sound des Fahrzeugs. VDI- Berichte 1159, 6. Fachtagung Motorrad, 1-17.

Schulz, U. Gresch, H. and Kerwien, H. (1991). Motorbiking: Motives and emotions.In Institut für Zweiradsicherheit (Ed.): Safety, Environment, Future. Proceedings of the 1991 International Motorcycle Conference. Forschungsheft Nr. 7.

Seibert, S.E., Kraimer, M.L, and Liden, R.C. (2001). Social Capital and Career Success. The Academy of Management Journal 44(2):219-237. DOI: 10.2307/3069452.

https://doi.org/10.2307/3069452

Stebbins, R. A. (1982). Serious leisure: A conceptual statement. Pacific Sociological Review, 25, 251-272.

https://doi.org/10.2307/1388726

Stebbins, R.A. (2007). Serious leisure: A perspective for our time. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

Stebbins, R.A. (2010). Addiction to Leisure Activities: Is It Possible?. LSA Newsletter No. 86. Leisure Reflections No. 24. Retrieved from http://www.seriousleisure.net/uploads/8/3/3/8/8338986/reflections_24.pdf Retrieved in 04-July-2017.

Steg, L. (2003). Can public transport compete with the private car? IATSS Res. 27 (2), 27.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0386-1112(14)60141-2

Steg, L. (2005). Car use: lust and must. Instrumental, symbolic and affective motives for car use. Transp. Res. A Policy Pract. 39 (2), 147-162.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2004.07.001

Steg, L. and Tertoolen, G. (1999). Affective motives for car use. Paper Presented at the European Transport Conference: Transport, Planning, Policy and Practice, Cambridge, London.

Steg, L., Vlek, C. and Slotegraaf, G. (2001). Instrumental-reasoned and symbolic-affective motives for using a motor car. Transp. Res. F Traffic Psychol. Behav. 4 (3), 151-169.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S1369-8478(01)00020-1

Strutter, E. (2010). Sons of Anarchy (Season III). New York, NY: FX Network.

Şencan, H. (2005). Sosyal ve Davranışsal Ölçümlerde Güvenilirlik ve Geçerlilik. Seçkin Yayıncılık, Ankara.

Witt, P. and Bishop, D. (2009). Situational Antecedents to Leisure Behavior. Journal of Leisure Research, 41(3), 337-350.

https://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.2009.11950177

Published

2020-06-19

How to Cite

Ardahan, P. D. F., & Selçuk GÜLEÇ. (2020). Developing and Doing Validity and Reliability of the Motivational Factors Scale of Recreational Motorcycle Usage. ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 4(3), 129-144. https://doi.org/10.46291/ISPECIJSSHvol4iss3pp129-144

Issue

Section

Articles