Virtual Schools and Problems of Virtual School Leaders

Abstract views: 32 / PDF downloads: 36


  • Münir ŞAHİN Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi



virtual schools, virtual school leadership, virtual leaders, problems of virtual school leaders


We live in an age where digitalization finds its place in every field. It is possible to see signs of digitalization in every field we can think of. Technology and science are building a digital world called metaverse beyond the virtual world, and banks are selling their shares in this digital world. In the face of developments that challenge the human mind and imagination, schools have to adapt themselves to innovations in this digital universe, as science nests where knowledge is spread, processed and even the seeds are planted to create it. As in every process, digitalization and virtualization also bring some problems. In this study, it is aimed to discuss virtual schools and the problems that virtual school leaders may encounter. In the study, given in the light of local and foreign literature, virtual schools, problems of virtual schools, the virtual school leadership needed in the management of these schools and the problems that virtual school leaders may encounter are included in accordance with the purpose of the study. It has been seen that virtual schools are preferred for reasons such as economic, geographical, school and teacher shortages. It has been seen that virtual schools are preferred as they do not need school buildings, can increase efficiency and quality, meet the educational needs of those who have to work, are an economical way to overcome geographical barriers and remove borders, and provide access to people with international talent and expertise.


Abrego, J., & A. Pankake. 2010. PK–12 virtual schools: The challenges and roles of school leaders. Educational Considerations 37(2): 7–13.

Avolio, B. J., & Kahai, S. S. (2003). Adding the ‘‘E’’ to e-leadership: How it may impact your leadership. Organizational Dynamics, 31, 325–338.

Aytaç, T. (2000). Hizmet İçi Eğitim Kavramı ve Uygulamada Karşılaşılan Sorunlar. Milli Eğitim (Eğitim-Kültür-Sanat), 147. aytac.htm (08.11.2022).

Bacsich, P, Pepler, G., Philips, B. Öström, M. & Reynolds, S. (2022). Virtual Schools and Colleges Providing Alternatives for Successful Learning Volume 1. Belgium: ATiT bvba.

Barbour, M. (2014). A history of international K-12 online and blended instruction. blended-Barbour/680ade0acde35136ed9b9ab24ef9eee8e3b04b6e?p2df 06.11.2022.

Berg, Z. L., &T. Clark, eds. 2005. Virtual schools: Planning for success. New York: Teachers College Press.

Can, N. & Köse, A. (2015). İlkokul ve ortaokul yöneticilerinin hizmet içi eğitim ve geliştirme kavramlarına ilişkin görüşleri ve beklentileri. KSÜ Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 12(2), 85-118.

Cook, K. C. (2020). An argument for pedagogy-driven online education. In Online education (pp. 49–66). New York, NY: Routledge.

Daniel, J. S. (2022). Running distance education at scale: Open universities, open schools, and MOOCs. In O. Zawacki-Richter & I. Jung (Eds.), Handbook of open, distance and digital education (pp. 1–18).


DeSanctis, G., & Poole, M. S. (1994). Capturing the complexity in advanced technology use: Adaptive Structuration Theory. Organization Science, 5,121–147.

Duarte, D. L & Tennant, N. (1999). Masterin virtual teams: Strategies, tools, and techniques that succeed. The Internet and Higher Education, 3(4), 229-343.

Eom, Sb (2009). Effects Of Interaction On Students’ Perceived Learning Satisfaction In University Online Education: An Empirical Investigation. Proceedings of the 2009 AIS SIGED: IAIM International Conference on Information Systems Education and Research. 33.

Etherington, C. (2019). A new report predicts more growth for virtual schools by 2024. E-learning Inside. schools-by-2024/ 01.11.2022.

Garrison, D. (2016). E-learning in the 21st century: A framework for research and practice. New York, NY: Routledge.

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (1999). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2-3), 87–105.

Hunsaker, P.L.& Hunsaker, J.S.(2008). Virtual teams: A leader’s guide. Team Performance Management, 14 (1/2), 86-101,

Kitiş, A.Ç. (2010). Okul yöneticilerinin uzaktan eğitime ilişkin görüşleri (Dezili İli örneği), (Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans tezi). Pamukkale Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.

LaFrance, J., & D. Beck. 2014. Mapping the terrain: Educational leadership field experiences in K–12 virtual schools. Educational Administration Quarterly 50 (1): 160–189.

Lugg, C. A., & A. R. Shoho. 2006. Dare public school administrators build a new social order? Social justice and the possibly perilous politics of educational leadership. Journal of Educational Administration 44 (3): 196–208.

MEB (2022). Millî Eğitim Bakanlığı Personeli Hizmet İçi Eğitim Yönetmeliği. 04.10.2022.

Miller, T., & M. Ribble. 2010. Moving beyond bricks and mortar: Changing the conversation on online education. Educational Considerations 37(2), 3–6.

Molnar, A., Miron, G., Elgeberi, N., Barbour, M.K., Huerta, L., Shafer, S.R., & Rice, J.K. (2019). Virtual Schools in the U.S. 2019. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center. 06.11.2022.

Moore, K. (2020). 3 Essential virtual leadership skills that create a thriving remote culture. thriving-remote culture/#:~:text=The%20definition%20of%20virtual%20leadership,helping%20teams %20accomplish%20their%20goals.04.10.2022.

Morgan, L., Caceres, A., & Wright, G. (2014). Leading Effective Global Virtual Teams: The Consequences of Methods of Communication. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 27(6), 607–624.doi:10.100711213-014-9315-2

Nydegger, R.& Nydegger, L. (2010) Challenges in managng virtual teams. Journal of Business& Economics Research, 8(3), 69-82.

Purvanova, R. K., & Bono, J. B. (2009). Transformational leadership in context. Face-to-face and virtual teams. The Leadership Quarterly, 20, 343 – 357.

Richardson, J. W. LaFrance & Beck, D.(2015) Challenges of Virtual School Leadership. American Journal of Distance Education, 29(1), 18-29, DOI:10.1080/08923647.2015.992647.

Schmidt, G. B. (2014). Virtual leadership: An important leadership context. Industrial and Organizational Psychology 7, 182–87.

Şahin, M. (2021a). The opinions of university students on effects of distance learning in Turkey during the Covid-19 pandemic. African Educational Research Journal 9(2), 526-543.

Şahin, M. (2021b). Dünyada ve Türkiye’de yükseköğretimde uzaktan eğitimin tarihi ve gelişim süreci. Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 5(7), 91-113.

Şahin, M. (2022a). Covıd-19 salgını sürecinde uygulanan eğitim uygulamalarına ilişkin yönetici görüşler (Ed. Fatih Erdemir). Farklı Disiplinlerden Seçkin Araştırmalar (Sağlık, Sosyal, Beşeri ve İdari Bilimler, Eğitim, Filoloji, Fen Bilimleri, Mühendislik). İzmir: Duvar Yayınları.

Şahin, M. (2022b). Okul yönetiminde iletişim becerisinin önemi. Eğitim Bilimleri Alanında Uluslararası Yayınlar. Ankara: Eğitim Yayınevi.

The World Bank (2017). Global infrastructure connectivity alliance. alliance 04.11.2022.

The World Bank (2018). World Development Report 2018. 05.11.2022.

Torre, T. & Sarti, D. (2020) The “Way” Toward E-leadership: Some Evidence From the Field. Front. Psychol. 11:554253. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.554253.

Twinomugisha, A. (2019). The promise and the challenges of virtual schools. World Bank Blogs. 05.11.2022.

UNESCO (2019). New Methodology Shows that 258 Million Children, Adolescents and Youth Are Out of School. shows-258-million-children-adolescents-and-youth-are-out-school.pdf 05.11.2019.



How to Cite

ŞAHİN, M. (2022). Virtual Schools and Problems of Virtual School Leaders. ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 6(2), 139–150.